New research on how to get Americans cycling points to a very blunt conclusion: you can increase the amount of cyclists by improving cycling for women. Things like physically separated bike lanes instead of just painted lines can make a huge difference in the enjoyability of cycling and the safety of it.
Women are considered an â€œindicator speciesâ€ for bike-friendly cities for several reasons. First, studies across disciplines as disparate as criminology and child rearing have shown that women are more averse to risk than men. In the cycling arena, that risk aversion translates into increased demand for safe bike infrastructure as a prerequisite for riding. Women also do most of the child care and household shopping, which means these bike routes need to be organized around practical urban destinations to make a difference.
â€œDespite our hope that gender roles donâ€™t exist, they still do,â€ says Jennifer Dill, a transportation and planning researcher at Portland State University. Addressing womenâ€™s concerns about safety and utility â€œwill go a long wayâ€ toward increasing the number of people on two wheels, Dill explains.
So far few cities have taken on the challenge. In the U.S., most cycling facilities consist of on-street bike lanes, which require riding in vehicle-clogged traffic, notes John Pucher, a professor of urban planning at Rutgers University and longtime bike scholar. And when cities do install traffic-protected off-street bike paths, they are almost always along rivers and parks rather than along routes leading â€œto the supermarket, the school, the day care center,â€ Pucher says.
Although researchers have long examined the bike infrastructure in Europe, they have only just started to do so for the U.S. In a study conducted last year, Dill examined the effect of different types of bike facilities on cycling. The project, which used GPS positioning to record individual cycling trips in Portland, compared the shortest route with the path cyclists actually took to their destination. Women were less likely than men to try on-street bike lanes and more likely to go out of their way to use â€œbike boulevards,â€ quiet residential streets with special traffic-calming features for bicycles. â€œWomen diverted from the shortest routes more often,â€ Dill says.
Cycling is so awesome that in Sao Paulo bicycles are faster than helicopters: